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What Affects Your Credit Score?

September 20, 2021 6 mins

It’s important to understand your credit score, how to check it, and how to maintain a good credit score and credit history.

你可能知道信用评分通常在300到850之间, 你可能知道哪些习惯会让你得到更好的分数. But do you know what the top two factors are? 继续读下去,找出答案——以及如何在这些方面取得最大的成绩, and what the other factors are.

You can also learn more about the basics including what is a credit score and how to check your score for free.

FICO and VantageScore, the two most common sources of credit scores, 两者都表明你的付款历史是你总分中最重要的因素.”

Your payment history is the most important factor in your credit score

当你按时支付账单和贷款时——包括支付最低金额或全额支付余额——你的信用评分就会上升. 当你没有按时付款或者你付的钱少于最低还款额时,它就会下降. FICO and VantageScore, the two most common sources of credit scores, 两者都表明你的付款历史是你总分中最重要的因素.

Maximize your score by paying your bills

按时支付所有账单,至少支付最低余额. 你付的钱越少(低于最低标准),你付得越晚,你的分数就会下降得越多.

为了按时支付账单,在日历上做一个提醒. Use online banking or Bill Pay to set up recurring payments. 问问你的债主,他们是否会更改你的还款日期,以便与你拿到薪水的时间一致. 许多银行和信用合作社还设置了每月自动从你的支票账户中全额支付信用卡的功能——即使是在不同机构的账户.

The amount of credit you use is the second most important

Known as “credit utilization,“你实际使用的可用信用额度是你得分中第二重要的因素, according to FICO and VantageScore. In a nutshell, 您的信用利用率是指您在任何时候使用的信用额度的百分比.

For example, 如果你的信用卡和其他贷款账户的总信用额度是12美元,000 and you had outstanding balances totaling $4,000, your credit utilization would be 33%. 在本例中,33%的利用率略高于30%的推荐最大值.

How to maximize your score by limiting your utilization

在任何时候使用不超过30%的可用信用额度. Keeping tabs on your total balances owed, setting up automated balance alerts via text or email, 或者在到期日之前支付额外的款项都是保持在30%以下的方法.

Four other factors in your score

There’s a few other factors that also affect your score, and these are worth paying attention to, 但它们对你分数的影响远不如主要的两个因素.

Your total debts owed

The total amount owed in debt will affect your score, 如果你的总债务——尤其是像信用卡这样的无担保贷款——随着时间的推移而下降,你的分数会更高.

The length of time since you last applied for debt

Every time you apply for a loan or credit card, 这会对你的信用报告造成“硬性询问”——这会使你的分数降低几个点. 随着时间的推移,这些询问会减少,而其他因素可能会再次提高你的分数. 总的来说,申请太多的新贷款并不是一个好主意.

The length of time your loan accounts have been open

你的贷款和信用卡账户开得越久,你的分数就越高. 这就是为什么保留旧账户通常是个好主意,除非有很好的理由关闭它们, 比如使用该账户超支的诱惑或非常高的年费.

Your credit mix

Typically, 最好是混合使用各种信用类型——包括固定付款的账户(如汽车贷款和抵押贷款)和可变付款的账户(如信用卡).

What doesn’t affect your credit score

Not all financial actions affect your credit score. 以下是一些不会影响你的分数的事情(尽管其中一些可能会出现在你的信用报告和/或公司可以检查你的信用):

  • Soft credit checks – A soft inquiry, also known as a soft credit check or soft credit pull, happens when you view your own credit report, or someone you authorize, like a potential employer, checks it. 当金融机构检查你的信用以预先批准你的贷款时,也会进行软信用检查. 因为它们与特定的信贷申请无关, soft credit checks don’t impact your credit score.
  • Checking your own score -如上所述,查看自己的信用报告不会影响你的分数. 根据来源的不同,你的信用报告可能包括也可能不包括你的信用评分. In any case, 不管你是在检查你自己的报告还是你自己的分数,或者两者都检查, , it does not affect your score.
  • Rent – In most cases, 你的租金支付和你的公用事业支付不报告给信用局, so they do not count toward your score. 例外情况是如果你使用租金报告服务,或者如果你拖欠水电费. 公用事业公司可能会将其冲销或出售给收集商, who can report it to the credit bureaus and hurt your score. Some new products, such as Experian Boost, 允许您添加公用事业支付信息到您的Experian信用报告, which can influence your credit. 收入和银行余额:信用报告确实包括一些雇主信息, but it’s used only to match account data to the
  • Utility payments -通常情况下,公用事业支付不报告给信用局,所以他们不影响你的分数. However, if you pay your utility payments late or not at all, this may end up affecting your score, 特别是如果公用事业公司冲销债务或将其出售给催收人. 收债人可以向信用机构报告这一点,从而影响你的分数.
  • Your income -虽然债权人可能会考虑你的收入来决定你是否可以偿还贷款, it’s not something that affects your credit score itself. 虽然信用报告可能包括你目前的工作和/或工作经历的一些信息, 这通常用于将帐户匹配到正确的人. 因此,获得加薪或第二份工作来补充你的收入不会增加你的分数.
  • Your checking, savings, and investment account balances -由于信用报告只列出信用账户-不检查, savings, 或者投资账户——你的余额对你的分数没有帮助. However, these may still be factors that lenders look at, particularly for large loans such as mortgages.

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